Food Equivalents and Substitutions

Food Equivalents: How many carrots to make 4 cups of grated carrots,

All cooks need to know
"food equivalents" or recipe "ingredient equivalents."

We just don't think about it until we're headed to the store needing 4 cups of grated carrots and 1/4 pound of butter for our Carrot Cake. How many carrots is that? How many sticks of butter?

Stop guessing, stressing, over-buying and under-buying; use these quick-reference charts, instead.

Food Equivalents

Dry Goods Quantity Equivalent
Chocolate Chips 1 12-ounce bag about 2 1/2 cups
Chocolate, unsweetened 1 square 1 ounce
Cocoa Powder 3 ounces 1 cup
Coconut, flaked 1 14-ounce bag 5 1/3 cups
Flour, all purpose 1 pound 3 cups unsifted or
3 1/2 to 4 cups sifted
Flour, pastry/cake 1 pound 3 3/4 cups unsifted or
4 1/2 to 5 cups sifted
Flour, whole wheat 1 pound 3 1/2 to 3 3/4 cups unsifted
Flour is tricky stuff. It compacts and absorbs moisture. For better accuracy, sift it or at least fluff it with a fork before measuring.
Rolled Oats 1 pound 5 1/3 cups
Sugar, brown 1 pound 3 1/2 cups or
2 1/4 cups packed
Sugar, granulated 1 pound 2 1/4 cups
Sugar, powdered 1 pound 3 3/4 cups unsifted or
4 1/2 cups sifted

Vegetables Quantity Equivalent
Broccoli 1 bunch (about 9 ounces) 3 1/2 cups florets
Cabbage 1 small head 6 to 8 cups, shredded
Carrots 1 pound 3 cups, shredded
Celery 2 medium stalks 1 cup, diced
Green Onion 1 onion 2 tablespoons, sliced
Lettuce 1 6-ounce bag about 3 cups
Mushrooms 1/2 pound 2 cups, sliced
Onion 1 large (5-ounce) 1 cup, chopped
Onions 1 pound 3 to 4 cups, chopped
Potato 1 medium 1/2 cup, mashed
Pumpkin 1 pound 1 healthy cup,
cooked and mashed
Spinach 1 pound 8 cups, uncooked
or 1 1/2 cups, cooked
Sweet Potatoes 1 pound 1 1/2 cups, cooked
Tomatoes 1 pound 1 1/2 cups, seeded and diced
Zucchini 1 pound 3 1/2 cups, sliced
or 2 cups, grated

Eggs and Dairy Quantity Equivalent
Butter 1 stick 8 tablespoons or 1/2 cup or 4 ounces
Butter 1 pound 2 cups
Cheese 1 pound 4 1/2 cups, grated
For finely grated cheeses, like Parmesan, 3 ounces = 1 cup grated
Egg Whites 8 to 10 large eggs 1 cup
Egg Yolks 12 to 14 large eggs 1 cup
Whipping Cream, heavy 1 cup 2 cups, whipped

Fruit Quantity Equivalent
Apple 1 medium (5 to 6 ounces) 1 cup, diced
Apples 1 pound 1 1/4 cups applesauce
Bananas 3 medium 1 cup, mashed
Berries 1 quart 3 1/2 cups
Candied Fruit or Peel 1/2 pound 1 1/2 cups
Cherries 1 pound 2 1/2 cups, pitted
Cranberries 1 pound 3 cups of sauce
Dates, pitted 1 pound 2 2/3 cup
Dates, with pit 1 pound 3 1/2 cups
Lemon Juice 1 large lemon 3 to 4 teaspoons juice
12 large lemons produce 1 to 1 1/2 cups juice, a figure which has been adjusted down; apparently, the lemons from my lemon tree are juicier than what you find in the grocery store.
Lemon Zest 1 medium lemon 1 teaspoon grated rind
Lime Juice 1 large lime 2 teaspoons juice
Lime Zest 1 large lime 1 teaspoon grated rind
Orange Juice 1 medium orange 4 to 5 tablespoons juice
Orange Zest 1 medium orange 3 to 4 teaspoons grated rind
Raisins 1 pound 3 cups

How Much Food for Your Crowd?

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